returns a list with all instruments that are known to the local VISA system. If you’re lucky, these are all instruments connected with the computer. The boolean use_aliases is True by default, which means that the more human- friendly aliases like “COM1” instead of “ASRL1” are returned. With some VISA systems you can define your own aliases for each device, e.g. “keithley617” for “GPIB0::15::INSTR”. If use_aliases is False, only standard resource names are returned.
- instrument(resource_name[, **keyw])¶
returns an instrument variable for the instrument given by resource_name. It saves you from calling one of the instrument classes directly by choosing the right one according to the type of the instrument. So you have one function to open all of your instruments.
All further keyword arguments given to this function are passed to the class constructor of the respective instrument class. See section General devices for a table with all allowed keyword arguments and their meanings.
- class Instrument(resource_name[, **keyw])¶
represents an instrument, e.g. a measurement device. It is independent of a particular bus system, i.e. it may be a GPIB, serial, USB, or whatever instrument. However, it is not possible to perform bus-specific operations on instruments created by this class. For this, have a look at the specialised classes like GpibInstrument (section Common properties of instrument variables).
The parameter resource_name takes the same syntax as resource specifiers in VISA. Thus, it begins with the bus system followed by ”::”, continues with the location of the device within the bus system, and ends with an optional ”::INSTR”.
Possible keyword arguments are:
Keyword Description timeout timeout in seconds for all device operations, see section Timeouts. Default: 5 chunk_size Length of read data chunks in bytes, see section Chunk length. Default: 20kB values_format Data format for lists of read values, see section Reading binary data. Default: ascii term_char termination characters, see section Termination characters. Default: None send_end whether to assert END after each write operation, see section Termination characters. Default: True delay delay in seconds after each write operation, see section Termination characters. Default: 0 lock whether you want to have exclusive access to the device. Default: VI_NO_LOCK
For further information about the locking mechanism, see The VISA library implementation.
The class Instrument defines the following methods and attributes:
writes the string message to the instrument.
returns a string sent from the instrument to the computer.
returns a list of decimal values (floats) sent from the instrument to the computer. See section A more complex example above. The list may contain only one element or may be empty.
The optional format argument overrides the setting of values_format. For information about that, see section Reading binary data.
sends the string message to the instrument and returns the answer string from the instrument.
- Instrument.ask_for_values(message[, format])¶
sends the string message to the instrument and reads the answer as a list of values, just as read_values() does.
The optional format argument overrides the setting of values_format. For information about that, see section Reading binary data.
resets the device. This operation is highly bus-dependent. I refer you to the original VISA documentation, which explains how this is achieved for VXI, GPIB, serial, etc.
sends a trigger signal to the instrument.
returns a string sent from the instrument to the computer. In contrast to read(), no termination characters are checked or stripped. You get the pristine message.
The timeout in seconds for each I/O operation. See section Timeouts for further information.
The termination characters for each read and write operation. See section Termination characters for further information.
Whether or not to assert EOI (or something equivalent, depending on the interface type) after each write operation. See section Termination characters for further information.
Time in seconds to wait after each write operation. See section Termination characters for further information.
- class GpibInstrument(gpib_identifier[, board_number[, **keyw]])¶
represents a GPIB instrument. If gpib_identifier is a string, it is interpreted as a VISA resource name (section VISA resource names). If it is a number, it denotes the device number at the GPIB bus.
The optional board_number defaults to zero. If you have more that one GPIB bus system attached to the computer, you can select the bus with this parameter.
The keyword arguments are interpreted the same as with the class Instrument.
Since this class is derived from the class Instrument, please refer to section General devices for the basic operations. GpibInstrument can do everything that Instrument can do, so it simply extends the original class with GPIB-specific operations.
The class GpibInstrument defines the following methods:
waits for a serial request (SRQ) coming from the instrument. Note that this method is not ended when another instrument signals an SRQ, only this instrument.
The timeout argument, given in seconds, denotes the maximal waiting time. The default value is 25 (seconds). If you pass None for the timeout, this method waits forever if no SRQ arrives.
- class Gpib([board_number])¶
represents a GPIB board. Although most setups have at most one GPIB interface card or USB-GPIB device (with board number 0), theoretically you may have more. Be that as it may, for board-level operations, i.e. operations that affect the whole bus with all connected devices, you must create an instance of this class.
The optional GPIB board number board_number defaults to 0.
The class Gpib defines the following method:
pulses the interface clear line (IFC) for at least 0.1 seconds.
You needn’t store the board instance in a variable. Instead, you may send an IFC signal just by saying Gpib().send_ifc().
Please note that “serial instrument” means only RS232 and parallel port instruments, i.e. everything attached to COM and LPT. In particular, it does not include USB instruments. For USB you have to use Instrument instead.
- class SerialInstrument(resource_name[, **keyw])¶
represents a serial instrument. resource_name is the VISA resource name, see section VISA resource names. The general keyword arguments are interpreted the same as with the class Instrument. The only difference is the default value for term_chars: For serial instruments, CR (carriage return) is used to terminate readings and writings.
The communication speed in baud. The default value is 9600.
Number of data bits contained in each frame. Its value must be from 5 to 8. The default is 8.
Number of stop bits contained in each frame. Possible values are 1, 1.5, and 2. The default is 1.
The parity used with every frame transmitted and received. Possible values are:
Value Description no_parity no parity bit is used odd_parity the parity bit causes odd parity even_parity the parity bit causes even parity mark_parity the parity bit exists but it’s always 1 space_parity the parity bit exists but it’s always 0
The default value is no_parity.
This determines the method used to terminate read operations. Possible values are:
Value Description last_bit_end_input read will terminate as soon as a character arrives with its last data bit set term_chars_end_input read will terminate as soon as the last character of term_chars is received
The default value is term_chars_end_input.
Common properties of instrument variables¶
Very most VISA I/O operations may be performed with a timeout. If a timeout is set, every operation that takes longer than the timeout is aborted and an exception is raised. Timeouts are given per instrument.
For all PyVISA objects, a timeout is set with
my_device.timeout = 25
Here, my_device may be a device, an interface or whatever, and its timeout is set to 25 seconds. Floating-point values are allowed. If you set it to zero, all operations must succeed instantaneously. You must not set it to None. Instead, if you want to remove the timeout, just say
Now every operation of the resource takes as long as it takes, even indefinitely if necessary.
The default timeout is 5 seconds, but you can change it when creating the device object:
my_instrument = instrument("ASRL1", timeout = 8)
This creates the object variable my_instrument and sets its timeout to 8 seconds. In this context, a timeout value of None is allowed, which removes the timeout for this device.
Note that your local VISA library may round up this value heavily. I experienced this effect with my National Instruments VISA implementation, which rounds off to 0, 1, 3 and 10 seconds.
If you read data from a device, you must store it somewhere. Unfortunately, PyVISA must make space for the data before it starts reading, which means that it must know how much data the device will send. However, it doesn’t know a priori.
Therefore, PyVISA reads from the device in chunks. Each chunk is 20 kilobytes long by default. If there’s still data to be read, PyVISA repeats the procedure and eventually concatenates the results and returns it to you. Those 20 kilobytes are large enough so that mostly one read cycle is sufficient.
The whole thing happens automatically, as you can see. Normally you needn’t worry about it. However, some devices don’t like to send data in chunks. So if you have trouble with a certain device and expect data lengths larger than the default chunk length, you should increase its value by saying e.g.
my_instrument.chunk_size = 102400
This example sets it to 100 kilobytes.
Reading binary data¶
Some instruments allow for sending the measured data in binary form. This has the advantage that the data transfer is much smaller and takes less time. PyVISA currently supports three forms of transfers:
- This is the default mode. It assumes a normal string with comma- or whitespace-separated values.
- The values are expected as a binary sequence of IEEE floating point values with single precision (i.e. four bytes each).
- The same as single, but with values of double precision (eight bytes each).
You can set the form of transfer with the property values_format, either with the generation of the object,
my_instrument = instrument("GPIB::12", values_format = single)
or later by setting the property directly:
my_instrument.values_format = single
Setting this option affects the methods read_values() and ask_for_values(). In particular, you must assure separately that the device actually sends in this format. In some cases it may be necessary to set the byte order, also known as endianness. PyVISA assumes little-endian as default. Some instruments call this “swapped” byte order. However, there is also big-endian byte order. In this case you have to append | big_endian to your values format:
my_instrument = instrument("GPIB::12", values_format = single | big_endian)
In order to demonstrate how easy reading binary data can be, remember our example from section A more complex example. You just have to append the lines
keithley.write("format:data sreal") keithley.values_format = single
to the initialisation commands, and all measurement data will be transmitted as binary. You will only notice the increased speed, as PyVISA converts it into the same list of values as before.
Somehow the computer must detect when the device is finished with sending a message. It does so by using different methods, depending on the bus system. In most cases you don’t need to worry about termination characters because the defaults are very good. However, if you have trouble, you may influence termination characters with PyVISA.
Termination characters may be one character or a sequence of characters. Whenever this character or sequence occurs in the input stream, the read operation is terminated and the read message is given to the calling application. The next read operation continues with the input stream immediately after the last termination sequence. In PyVISA, the termination characters are stripped off the message before it is given to you.
You may set termination characters for each instrument, e.g.
my_instrument.term_chars = CR
Alternatively you can give it when creating your instrument object:
my_instrument = instrument("GPIB::10", term_chars = CR)
The default value depends on the bus system. Generally, the sequence is empty, in particular for GPIB . For RS232 it’s CR .
Well, the real default is not “” (the empty string) but None. There is a subtle difference: “” really means the termination characters are not used at all, neither for read nor for write operations. In contrast, None means that every write operation is implicitly terminated with CR+LF . This works well with most instruments.
All CRs and LFs are stripped from the end of a read string, no matter how term_chars is set.
The termination characters sequence is an ordinary string. CR and LF are just string constants that allow readable access to “\r” and “\n”. Therefore, instead of CR+LF, you can also write “\r\n”, whichever you like more.
delay and send_end¶
There are two further options related to message termination, namely send_end and delay. send_end is a boolean. If it’s True (the default), the EOI line is asserted after each write operation, signalling the end of the operation. EOI is GPIB-specific but similar action is taken for other interfaces.
The argument delay is the time in seconds to wait after each write operation. So you could write:
my_instrument = instrument("GPIB::10", send_end = False, delay = 1.2)
This will set the delay to 1.2 seconds, and the EOI line is omitted. By the way, omitting EOI is not recommended, so if you omit it nevertheless, you should know what you’re doing.
Mixing with direct VISA commands¶
You can mix the high-level object-oriented approach described in this document with middle-level VISA function calls in module vpp43 as described in The VISA library implementation which is also part of the PyVISA package. By doing so, you have full control of your devices. I recommend to import the VISA functions with:
from pyvisa import vpp43
Then you can use them with vpp43.function_name(...).
The VISA functions need to know what session you are referring to. PyVISA opens exactly one session for each instrument or interface and stores its session handle in the instance attribute vi. For example, these two lines are equivalent:
In case you need the session handle for the default resource manager, it’s stored in resource_manager.session:
from visa import * from pyvisa import vpp43 my_instrument_handle = vpp43.open(resource_manager.session, "GPIB::14", VI_EXCLUSIVE_LOCK)
Setting the VISA library in the program¶
You can also set the path to your VISA library at the beginning of your program. Just start the program with
from pyvisa.vpp43 import visa_library visa_library.load_library("/usr/lib/libvisa.so.7") from visa import * ...
Keep in mind that the backslashes of Windows paths must be properly escaped, or the path must be preceeded by r:
from pyvisa.vpp43 import visa_library visa_library.load_library(r"c:\WINNT\system32\visa32.dll") from visa import * ...